Newspapers Established in Iowa Prior to the Civil War
Iowa county - Muscatine county
Counties: A-H * P-W
This database lists known Iowa newspapers that were established before the Civil War, and includes brief historical information of each paper either to its discontinuance, or to 1927. The name of each paper is given, the place and date of establishment, its politics if any, the name of the editor or publisher, changes in the name of the paper, etc. Most all of the papers were weekly publications, and unless otherwise stated, are considered such.
Source: Annals of Iowa, Vol VXI, No. 3, January 1928, by David C. Mott
Transcribed for Iowa Old Press by Sharyl Ferrall, January 2015
- Iowa County -
Iowa Visitor, Marengo, 1856-1927+. Republican. Established September 6, 1856, by Clinton Edwards. In 1859 Mr. Edwards was accidentally drowned in the Iowa River. Mr. Edwards published the paper until January 1, 1861, when she sold it to I. J. Teagarden who changed the name to the:
Iowa Valley Review. In September, 1864, it was sold to J. R. Serrin, in January, 1865, to F. A. C. Foreman & Co., and in August of that year the name was changed to:
Progressive Republican. J. C. Benedict, F. M. Connelly, and H. R. Crenshaw succeeded each other as editors and publishers, until in September, 1871, F. E. Spering became the owner and editor and the name was changed to:
Marengo Republican. On Mr. Spering's death in 1892 Frank Coulson was its editor under Mrs. Spering's ownership for a year or more when Herbert Fairall became editor. In 1895 the paper was purchased by M. A. Raney, who sold to James C. Dinwiddie in 1903, and he to David C. Mott in 1907. In 1909 Frank L. Mott bought a half interest, but the Motts sold to E. H. Paine and S. G. Snyder in 1913. In 1917 James S. Farquhar became publisher and editor. About 1923 Emmett A. Moynihan became editor, Farquhar remaining publisher, until in September, 1927, when he sold to Mortimer Goodwin and K. R. Marvin, and they combined it with the Pioneer as the:
Pioneer-Republican with Goodwin editor, and the paper became politically independent.
- Jackson County -
- Western Democrat, Andrew, 1847-1855. Democratic. Established in 1847 by Andrew Keesecker, M. H. Clark, editor. In 1849 Ansel Briggs became the owner, but in 1852 disposed of it to J. B. Dorr who removed it to Bellevue, and soon thereafter sold it to Peter Moriarty, who changed the name to:
Jackson County Press, and continued its publication a few years, when it was discontinued.
- Maquoketa Sentinel, 1854-1927+. Democratic. Established May 25, 1854, by William C. and Stephen Swigart. Stephen Swigart died in 1857. In 1862 because of the printer employee leaving for the Union Army the paper was suspended until in 1864 it was revived during the political campaign. The office passed into the hands of G. W. Hunt who in 1866 removed it to Le Claire, Scott County, Iowa. In April, 1868, W. C. Swigart having bought new material revived the paper as the:
Jackson Sentinel, which name it still retains. James T. Sargent was a partner from 1872 to 1877, after which Mr. Swigart took in partnership his two sons, Josiah M. and Willard B., the firm becoming Swigart & Sons. It remained in the hands of the Swigart family, father, sons, and grandsons, until 1920 when it was acquired by Young & Brown, F. C. Young succeeding later as editor and publisher.
- Maquoketa Weekly Excelsior, 1856-1927+. Republican. Established in March, 1856, by Peter Moriarty. A. W. Dripps leased the office in 1858, but in 1859 Willard S. Eddy purchased it and the firm became Drips & Eddy. In 1861 Drips retired. In 1865 Eddy sold to W. F. McCarron, and soon thereafter J. J. Wood purchased a half interest. B. F. Reeve acquired Wood's interest, and soon McCarron became sole proprietor, but in 1869 W. S. Belden purchased it. "Weekly" seems to have been dropped from the paper's name. In 1876 A. F. Shaw became owner. In 1880 J. H. Bahne, William Bahne, and ? Bingham purchased it, but Bingham and William Bahne retired and J. H. Bahne became sole owner and editor. In 1887 he sold to George Earl, Jr., and D. D. Priaulx, but the latter soon became sole owner. In 1897 C. E. Griffin, Charles Van Doren, and Harry Griffin acquired it, and in 1901 sold to J. P. Gruwell. In 1913 Heide & McKinsey became owners, followed in 1922 by A. C. McKinsey as editor, with the Excelsior Printing Company, publishers.
- Sabula Tribune, 1856. Republican. Established in 1856 by C. N. Beecher. It suspended in about a year.
- Jasper County -
- Newton Express, 1856-1916. Republican. Established in 1856 by (J. B.) Besack & Welker. In 1857 Frank T. Campbell purchased an interest and soon the balance of the ownership was obtained by his brother, A. K. Campbell, and the name was changed to:
Free Press. In 1861 Frank T. Campbell entered government service, and later, the Union Army, but in 1865 returned to Newton and was publisher of the Free Press, until 1867, when he sold to Patton & (W. A.) Campbell W. S. Benham owned it from 1870 to January, 1877, when J.R. Sage and Ralph Robinson purchased it. About a year later Robinson became sole owner, changed its name to the:
Newton Journal and edited it until July 1, 1910, when he sold it to F. L. Boydon who changed it to a daily in January, 1912, but on December 4, 1916, he sold it to the Newton Daily News and to the Newton Weekly Record.
- Jefferson County -
- Iowa Sentinel, Fairfield. 1847-1856. Democratic. Established in June, 1847, by A. R. Sparks. Ezra Brown and R. B. Pope succeeded to the ownership in 1848, but discontinued it in 1851. David Sheward revived it in 1853, but discontinued it finally in 1856.
- Fairfield Weekly Ledger, 1849-1927+. Whig. Established in November, 1849, by Orlando McCraney. A. R. Fulton came into possession of it in 1851. In January, 1852, the name was changed to:
Fairfield Ledger. In 1853 W. W. Junkin bought a half interest, and in 1854 he became the sole proprietor. In August, 1868, Ralph Robinson purchased a half interest, but relinquished it to Mr. Junkin in January, 1875. In 1878 Charles M. Junkin became a partner, which arrangement continued until the death of W. W. Junkin in 1903, after which C. M. Junkin conducted it until his death in 1915. Don and William McGiffin then became publishers, and In May, 1921, Dean Taylor joined them, and the Journal and Tribune were combined with the Ledger, the Ledger being issued as a daily and the Ledger-Journal as a weekly, published by the Fairfield Ledger Company, Herbert F. McDougal, editor. The Ledger became Republican on the organization of that party, and so remained.
- Fairfield Jeffersonian, 1857-1860. Democratic. Established September 18, 1857, by T. Buckey Taylor. Two weeks later he sold to H. N. Moore and I. J. Tolan. Moore retired and Tolan & Hanna became the publishers. Then Samuel Jacobs and H. N. Moore acquired it. In 1860 the paper was discontinued and the Ledger bought the material.
- Johnson County -
- Iowa City Standard, 1841-1924. Whig. Established June 10, 1841, by William Crum. A. P. Wood became editor in 1842. In 1846 it was purchased by Silas Foster and Easton Morris became editor. It suspended "for a season" early in 1848 and when it resumed Dr. S. M. Ballard was owner and editor, and the name was changed to:
Iowa City Republican and its politics to Republican. Following Dr. Ballard as editors or owners there were previous to or during the Civil War C. W. Hobart, H. W. Lathrop, John Teesdale, Rush Clark, and Jerome & Duncan. In 1863 N. H. Brainard became editor. In 1874 Mr. Brainard sold to S. D. Pryce and J. H. C. Wilson. Pryce retired and Wilson, Rogers & Shields conducted it until 1879 when a company purchased it and Welker Given became editor. In 1881 H. S. Fairall became editor. In June, 1883, until March, 1884, Stephen B. Howard was editor, followed again by Fairall to 1894 when S. D. Cook had charge, and was succeeded in 1895 by W. M. Davis. He was succeeded in 1897 by H. W. Hanson, and he by W. H. Conant in 1898. From November, 1901, to February, 1902, Florence Huntley was editor. She was succeeded by David Brant as owner and editor. His death occurred in 1919 and A. W. Brant was editor for a time, when it passed to a company. It was a weekly during its early existence but began a daily edition in 1876. In 1916 it discontinued its daily edition and in 1920 changed its name to:
Iowa City Farm Republic. It was suspended in 1921.
- Iowa City Argus, 1841-1842. Democratic. Established July 29, 1841, by Dr. Nathaniel Jackson. Early in 1842 he sold to the Iowa Capital Reporter, and it was merged with that paper.
- Iowa Capital Reporter, Iowa City, 1841-1927+. Democratic. Established December 4, 1841, by Verplanck Van Antwerp and Thomas Hughes. In 1844 Jesse Williams became editor and proprietor. In 1846 A. H. and G. D. Palmer became the owners. In 1850 Richard Sylvester was made editor with Edgar and Edmond Harrison owners. About this time the name was changed to:
Iowa State Reporter. In the fall of 1860, although the paper was still published by Edmund Harrison, it changed editors, L. D. Ingersoll and F. Lloyd taking over that work, and came out as Republican. A stock company was promptly formed among the leading Democrats of the community, and in August of that year the Democratic paper was re-established with Sylvester as editor, and James D. Templin, publisher, but under a new name, the:
State Democratic Press. Lloyd dropped out as one of the editors of the Reporter in January, 1861, and in July 1861, Edward C. Porter succeeded Ingersoll, although Harrison remained publisher. The Reporter seems to have suspended shortly thereafter. The Press came into the hands of Van Hosen & (John G.) Given in February, 1861. In August of the same year Sylvester was again installed as editor. Later Wilkins became editor. In August, 1863, Ira C. Mitchell began conducting the paper. About this time the name was changed to:
Iowa State Press. July 6, 1864, John P. Irish became editor and proprietor, and conducted the paper until 1882 when he sold to A. J. Hershire and John Springer. In 1894 they sold to Throop & Co. and they, in 1895, to S. W. and C. S. Mercer. In 1904 it was purchased by S. E. Carrell and the name was changed to:
Iowa City Press. He in 1920 took over the Daily Citizen, the paper becoming the:
Press-Citizen. In 1922 he sold to the Press-Citizen Company, with Merritt C. Speidel, editor. A daily edition was started in 1871 but was discontinued in 1880, but resumed in 1900.
- Jones County -
- Anamosa News, 1852-1856. Democratic. Established in February, 1852, by William Haddock. In 1856 he sold to Nathan G. Sales. We have no record of its existence later than 1856.
- Anamosa Eureka, 1856-1927+. Republican. Established in August, 1856, by J. E. Lovejoy and C. L. Crockwell. Lovejoy soon withdrew and Edmund Booth assisted in editing. In January, 1858, Matt Parrott bought an interest in the paper. In May, 1858, the paper came under the ownership of Crockwell, Parrott & Booth. In June, 1859, Crockwell retired, and in December, 1862, Booth became sole proprietor. In October, 1867, his son, Thomas E. Booth, became a partner. After a number of years the father retired and T. E. Booth remained the editor and proprietor until January, 1911, when he sold to Louis Gardner and sold his interest to Clifford L. Niles, the firm becoming Bye & Niles as editor. In September, 1925, Gardner sold his interest to Clifford L. Niles, the firm becoming Bye & Niles, with Niles as editor.
- Keokuk County -
- Western Friend, Lancaster, 1854-1855. Independent. Established June 1, 1854, by I. N. and J. L. Paschal. Suspension came in about a year.
- Life in the West, Sigourney, 1856-1859. Republican. Established in 1856 by John Rogers. It suspended before 1860.
- Iowa Democrat, Sigourney, 1858-1862. Democratic. Established in 1858 by S. B. Evans and Mr. Farra. In 1860 Farra sold his interest to J. B. Shollenbarger. In 1862 both proprietors enlisted in the Union Army and the paper was suspended.
- Keokuk County News, Sigourney, 1860-1927+. Republican. Established in 1860 by A. F. Bailey. In 1863 it was purchased by (J. H.) Sanders & Farra. However, Mr. Farra soon withdrew and Sanders, who was really the inspiring spirit in the founding of the paper, continued it until December of that year when he sold it to H. E. and J. W. Havens. The former soon sold his interest to F. M. Havens, who, in 1874, sold to Mr. Farr, and the firm became (J. W.) Havens & Farr. In 1876 Havens bought his partner's interest. In November, 1878, the paper was purchased by William H. Needham. He remained the editor and publisher until 1904 when the W. H. Needham Company took over the business. W. H. Needham remained editor until his death in 1924, although his sons, Charles K., John R., Sherman W., and William H., Jr., in succession had the active management. William H., Jr., became the editor in 1924.
-Lee County -
- Western Adventurer, Montrose, 1837-1838. Established June 28, 1837, by Dr. Isaac Galland with Thomas Gregg editor. It was suspended in 1838.
- Fort Madison Patriot, 1838. Whig. Established March 24, 1838, by James G. Edwards. In December, 1838, he removed the material to Burlington and about six months later it was used in establishing what afterward was called the Burlington Hawk-Eye.
- Fort Madison Courier, 1841-1897. Neutral. Established July 24, 1841, by R. Wilson Albright. In December, 1841, an interest was purchased by William E. Mason, nephew of Judge Charles Mason, and the name of the paper was changed to the:
Lee County Democrat and it became Democratic. In April, 1842, Mason sold his interest to O. S. X. Peck. The following June Albright again became sole owner. W. C. Stripe was employed as editor for a time, succeeded by T. C. Espy. In 1847 Albright sold the paper to George H. Williams, and he changed its name to:
Iowa Stateman. It was soon sold by Williams to J. D. Spaulding, and in February, 1852, he sold to Lewis V. Taft and others and the name was changed to:
Plain Dealer. In 1856 it was sold to J. D. Storms, A. Stoddard, and B. Grosman. The first two soon dropped out, leaving Grosman alone. In July, 1859, W. P. Staub purchased it and James D. Eads acted as editor for a time, followed by Dr. A. C. Roberts, but from May 3, 1861, J. M. Casey was the editor. In July, 1868, the paper was sold to William Caffrey, and on the following August it changed to Republican. In May, 1864, J. G. Wilson became owner and editor and in July, 1865, R. G. Raswick purchased an interest, which partnership continued to May, 1876, when W. D. Pratt bought Wilson's interest. In February, 1877, Pratt sold to H. D. Dodd, and in November, 1878, Dawley & Tremaine purchased the plant. It began the publication of a daily edition in addition to the weekly in 1882. J. H. Duffus was editor and publisher for some ten years, followed by A. E. Smith. In 1897 it was suspended.
- Iowa Morning Star and Keokuk Commercial Advertiser, 1845. Whig. Established April 24, 1845, by Thomas Gregg. It seems to have run only a few weeks.
- Iowa Argus, Keokuk, 1846. Democratic. Established in January, 1846, by William Pattee. It soon suspended.
- Keokuk Register, 1847-1849. Whig. Established May 26, 1847, by J. W. and R. B. Ogden. In March, 1849, they sold to Howell & Cowles of the Des Moines Valley Whig.
- Iowa Advocate and Half-Breed Journal, Montrose, 1847. Independent. Semi-monthly. Established August 16, 1847, by Isaac Galland. We have no knowledge of its existence later than in December, 1847.
- Keokuk Dispatch, 1848-1860. Democratic. Established May 20, 1848, by John B. Russell and Reuben L. Doyle. In 1849 Russell sold his interest to Doyle. In July, 1860, S. W. Halsey became part owner, but in 1851 sold to George Green and T. B. Cuming took editorial charge. In 1852 Cuming and G. W. Armstrong became the proprietors, but the same year W. A. Hornish bought Armstrong's interest, but by 1853 Cuming became sole proprietor. In 1854 H. W. Beers obtained ownership, then sold it to D. Reddington who in October, 1854, changed the paper's name to:
Saturday Post. In January, 1858, he sold it to William Rees, Sr., & Sons, who, in 1860, discontinued it and removed the plant to Doniphan, Kansas.
- Des Moines Valley Whig and Keokuk Register, Keokuk, 1849-1927+. Whig. Established in March, 1849, by James B. Howell and James H. Cowles. March 3, 1854, they began publishing the Daily Whig, but a year later the name of the paper was changed to the:
Gate City. Howell was editor until 1870. There were associated with him at different times J. H. Cowles, J. R. Briggs, William Richards, and Sam M. Clark. Clark had been associate editor for some five years when, on Howell's election to the United States Senate in 1870, he became joint owner and assumed the editorship, which he retained until soon after his election to Congress in 1894 when Dr. S. W. Moorhead assumed active editorial charge, which he continued most of the time until 1914. In August, 1905, C. F. Skirvin became principal owner. In April, 1916, the Constitution-Democrat was taken over by the Gate City and the paper became independent in polities. Edward S. Carter followed Dr. Moorhead as editorial writer. In 1922 S. E. Carrell became principal owner and Edward S. Carter, editor.
- Nip-And-Tuck, Keokuk, 1855-1916. Democratic. Established as a daily January 1, 1855, by D. Reddington. In February, 1855, the name was changed to:
Morning Glory. In September, 1855, he sold to A. T. Walling and Dr. G. St. Clair Hussey who merged it into the:
Daily Evening Times. Walling and Hussey sold to Charles D. Kirk who, on November 23, 1857, changed the name to the:
Keokuk Daily Journal. The paper was sold by Kirk to Newton, Hussey & Givin, and in May, 1859, by them to Charles Smith who conducted it until December, 1861, when he sold it to Thomas W. Claggett. He changed the name to the:
Constitution. Charles Smith acted as associate editor during nearly all of Claggett's ownership. Judge Claggett died April 14, 1876, after which his daughter, Sue Horry Claggett, conducted the paper until the following July 17 when it was sold to the John Gibbons Co., Gibbons having editorial charge. In April, 1877, Gibbons sold his interest to his partners, H. W. Clendenin, George Smith, and Thomas Rees, the first named becoming editor. June 11, 1881, they sold to a company of which Dr. W. A. George was chief owner, and editor of the paper. C. A. Warmick and R. S. Ranson purchased it March 26, 1888, and consolidated it with the Keokuk Daily Democrat, and named it the:
Constitution-Democrat. February, 1891, Warmick purchased his partner's interest. In September, 1892, he acquired the Daily Chief and merged it into the Constitution-Democrat. Mr. Warmick's death occurred in April, 1906, after which the ownership and management was taken over by Mrs. F. A. Warmick, followed by her son, C. E. Warmick, which continued until its absorption by the Gate City in April, 1916.
- Western Observer, Keokuk, 1855-1880. German. Independent Democratic. Established in 1855 by William Kopp. In 1857 Leopold Mader became proprietor, followed in 1858 by Christopher Mueller, and he in succession by Judge Jaeger, and by Rottick, (Jacob) Wohlwend & Serth, who acquired it in 1862. The latter sold to Rinker & Althaus, but in 1865 the firm became Wohlwend & Althaus. Previous to this the paper's name had been changed to the:
Keokuk Deutsche Zeitung, and later to the:
Keokuk Telegraph. In 1869 Emil Bischof purchased it, and changed the name to:
Die Post. In 1874 it came into the hands of Charles Norman, who sold it to Adolph Wulff in 1877. It seems to have been suspended in about 1880.
- Linn County -
- Progressive Era, Cedar Rapids, 1851-1896. Democratic. Established in 1851 by D. O. Finch. He soon sold to Joseph Greene, and under him Ezza Van Meter, James J. Child, and James L. Enos succeeded each other as editors. In 1854 Enos purchased it and changed the name to:
Cedar Valley Times and made it Republican in 1856. In 1861 William H. Merritt obtained control and it supported him as against Kirkwood for governor, but soon thereafter reverted to Republicanism. E. N. Bates became owner and editor for a short time, followed by C. M. Hollis. In 1866 Hollis sold to Ayers & Co. and Dr. F. McClelland became editor. In 1868 the name was changed to:
Cedar Rapids Times and in 1869 Dr. McClelland became part owner, L. M. Ayers being his partner. They published it for about thirty years. Dr. McClelland was sole owner as well as editor the last few years. It suspended in 1897.
- Prairie Star, Marion, 1852-1920. Established in 1852 by Azor Hoyt, but he soon sold to J. S. and G. H. Jennison and they changed the name to:
Linn County Register. William G. Thompson served as its editor for a time, as also did N. M. Hubbard during 1856 when the paper became Republican. In 1857 J. S. Jennison was again the editor, and in 1858 Robert Holmes assumed the position, also becoming owner. In December, 1863, Holmes sold to A. G. Lucas, who changed the paper's name to the:
Linn County Patriot. In September, 1864, S. W. Rathbun purchased it and changed the name back to:
Linn County Register, and the following January the title became the:
Marion Register. Maj. Rathbun edited the paper for over half a century, suspending it in 1920.
- Cedar Rapids Democrat, 1856-1857. Democratic. Established in 1856 by W. W. Perkins & Co., but for want of patronage suspended in about one year.
- Marion Herald, 1857-1861. Democratic. Established in 1857 by Hogan & Crowley. In 1858 J. P. Brown, S. W. Durham and T. S. Bardwell were proprietors, Brown succeeding them as sole owner. In 1859 W. J. Neeley became owner. In 1860 Dr. T. S. Bardwell purchased it and changed the name to:
Marion Democrat. Soon after the defeat of Douglas for president, the paper was suspended, but was revived by Bardwell as the:
Campaigner in 1861 and supported William H. Merritt, Democratic candidate for governor, but soon after his defeat it was finally suspended and the material removed to Illinois.
- Louisa County -
- Louisa County Times, Wapello, 1850-1859. Independent. Established November 27, 1850, by D. Sheward and J. Noffsinger, the latter soon becoming sole owner until 1853, when he changed the name to the:
Wapello Intelligencer. The paper had several editors during this time, of which we find no accurate record, but it appears Noffsinger sold to A. Hodge September 27, 1853, but bought It back again the following January. In the fall of 1854 he sold it to J. S. and W. H. Milligan. In January, 1855, J. S. Milligan withdrew and H. N. Milligan became part owner. J. E. Harroun and L. P, Wells assumed control in March, 1855, the latter being editor the greater part of 1856. Wells, Miller & Co. were proprietors in February, 1857, and Hodge & Barr In April, 1857. In October of that year the paper came out as Democratic. In 1858 and 1859 at different times it was edited or owned by J. B. Brigham, Thomas S. Bell, William Keach, Kelley, Ives & Mintun, John Jenkins & Co., Jenkins & Barr, and perhaps others. It suspended about the end of 1859.
- Columbus City Courier, 1856. Established April 8, 1856, by Dr. B. G. Neal. June 5, 1856, Andrew Gamble became editor. It suspended a few weeks thereafter.
- Wapello Republican, 1859-1927+. Republican. Established in 1859 by J. M. Edwards. It had a number of owners and editors in its early life. In May, 1860, J. and H. Mintun were publishers, with Henry Fulton editor. In June, 1865, James D. Barr was publisher, while in January, 1866, E. H. Thomas was publisher and S. E. Jones, editor. In 1867 Levi W. Myers became the owner and editor and conducted it until 1890 when he sold to J. B. Wilson who, a few years later, sold to George E. E. Townsend, he to C. M. Wright, and in 1898 G. R. Hawkins, the present owner and editor, took it over. During a part of Hawkins' ownership from 1901 to 1910, Charles Blanchard was associate editor.
- Lucas County -
- Little Giant, Chariton, 1857. Democratic. Established in 1867 by George M. Binckley. He soon changed the name to the:
Chariton Mail and took as a partner A. C. Cameron. Soon thereafter W. T. Wade purchased the paper, but in a few weeks it was suspended.
- Chariton Patriot, 1857-1927+. Republican. Established in 1857 by John Edwards and F. M. Fairbrother. In the absence of the early files it has not been possible to give consecutively the editors and publishers, but there were connected with it at different times Val Mendel, Charles Austin, E. B. Woodward, T. M. Stuart, Eugene Fawcett, J. W. Ragsdale, George H. Ragsdale, Moses Folsom and T. W. Fawcett. W. H. Marple was editor from 1872 to 1877 when G. H. Ragsdale, who had been part owner in 1867, now became editor and sole owner. He sold to Elijah Lewis in January, 1883. Some time in the nineties S. L. Lewis became a partner and about 1909 became editor and publisher. E. H. Lewis and others of the Lewis family were connected with it until October 7, 1909, it was sold to S. M. Greene and by him consolidated with the Herald as the:
Herald-Patriot. The Herald Publishing Company was owner and Mr. Greene, editor. W. D. Junkin became editor in 1915 and in 1919 Junkin & (F. W.) Meyers were editors and publishers. In 1922 the Chariton Publishing Company became owner, with Victor E. Swartzendruver, editor, and Will D. Allender, business manager.
- Madison County -
- Iowa Pilot, Winterset, 1856-1927+. Established November 6, 1856, by James Iler. In a few months the name was changed to:
Winterset Madisonian. Iler relinquished the publication in about a year to a syndicate of local citizens and it was announced as Republican. J. J. Davis soon afterward became owner and editor. Some time during the Civil War the paper's name was changed to the:
Hawkeye Flag. In 1862 Oliver H. Ayers became owner, and in 1863 he sold it to J. M. Holliday, and in 1864 he sold to C. S. Wilson. About a year later M. H. Ewing became owner with Wilson as editor. In September, 1865, it was purchased by Fuller & Wallace. The same year the name was changed back to:
Winterset Madisonian. In January, 1866, Wallace sold to Fuller, and two years later Fuller sold to Ewing. Mr. Ewing dying a year or so thereafter, H. J. B. Cummings became the owner and editor. In February, 1874, he sold an interest to S. H. Springer, who, in July, 1878, sold his interest to C. C. Goodale. In 1883 Goodale sold to E. R. Zeller. In July, 1883, the Chronicle, then owned by Henry Wallace, was consolidated with the Madisonian and the firm became Cummings, Wallace & Zeller. One year later Zeller sold his share to Homer Thompson. In June, 1888, Cummings and Wallace sold to Albert Strong and the firm became Thompson & Strong. In 1897 S. D. Alexander bought Thompson's interest. A year later Alexander sold to Fred Strong and the father and son, Strong & Co., published the paper until September 1, 1899, when Homer Thompson and Ed M. Smith purchased it. January 1, 1904, Mr. Smith became sole owner and editor.
- Winterset Palladium, 1859-1860. Democratic. Established in 1859 by J. G. Browne. In about a year it was discontinued and the material removed to Cass county.
- Mahaska County -
- Iowa Herald, Oskaloosa, 1850-1927+. Whig. Established July 1, 1850, by John R. Needham and H. McNeeley, the former being editor. In November the name was changed to the:
Oskaloosa Herald. In November, 1852, McNeeley sold his interest to John W. Murphy, who in 1855 sold to James H. Knox. Later, James M. Brown came into partnership with Mr. Needham. The paper became Republican on the organization of that party in 1856. January 1, 1858, Brown sold to Charles Beardsley and the firm became Needham & Beardsley. For a time during the Civil War a daily edition was issued. In March, 1865, C. W. Fisher and W. E. Sheppard purchased the paper, but in November Sheppard sold his interest to his partner. Soon after the war Henry C. Leighton and William H. Needham obtained an interest, the firm being Fisher, Leighton & Needham. W. A. Hunter bought Fisher's interest and became editor in January, 1868. In November, 1869, W. H. Needham sold his interest to H. C. Leighton and the firm became Hunter & Leighton, but in March, 1870, Needham bought Hunter's interest and the firm became Leighton & Needham. In August, 1877, W. H. Needham sold his interest to George R. Lee and William Leighton and the firm became Leighton, Lee & Leighton. In March, 1881, Lee sold to Albert W. Swalm, who became editor. A daily edition, the Evening Herald, began September 3, 1887. In August, 1889, Albert W. Swalm and Pauline Swalm, his wife, became the sole owners, having purchased the Leighton interests. In December, 1896, the paper was purchased by Charles V. and Phil Hoffman, the latter being editor. In 1906 the Oskaloosa Herald Company was organized, the Hoffmans controlling it.
- Oskaloosa Times, 1854-1864. Democratic. Established in January, 1854, by Cameron & (L. D.) Ingersoll. Later it passed into the hands of R. R. Harbor and David Coomes, and in course of time they sold to Samuel Bressler and A. A. Wheelock. Richard Wellslager then purchased Bressler's interest. Wheelock finally became sole owner and continued the paper until in March, 1864, when some Union soldiers who were home on furlough became so exasperated at the paper's expressions that they threw the forms in the street and emptied the cases of type, after which the publication was never resumed.
- Marion County -
- Pella Gazette, 1855-1860. Established February 1, 1855, by Edwin H. Grant and Hendrick P. Scholte. In 1857 or 1858 Grant retired from the firm and the paper was suspended for a time, but in 1859 it was revived by S. M. Hammond, Mr. Scholte editing it. From November, 1859, it was published by Hammond & Honnold until March, 1860, when it was discontinued.
- Knoxville Journal, 1855-1927+. Republican. Established in October, 1855, by William M. Stone. A little later George W. Edwards became a partner, and soon became sole owner, and then sold the paper to John M. Bailey. In the winter of 1857-58 Bailey sold to E. G. Stanfield who employed L. D. Ingersoll as editor. It was next published by Bigelow & Baird, and in 1860 passed to Homer & Honnold who changed the name to the:
Marion County Republican. B. F. Williams purchased it in October, 1861, and in August, 1866, sold it to William G. Cambridge. In March, 1867, Cambridge sold to Sperry & Barker, who changed the name to the:
Iowa Voter. In August, 1872, Sperry retired and Barker continued until June, 1876, when T. C. Masteller became a partner and the name of:
Knoxville Journal was restored. David Collins next became owner and at his death it was edited a year or two by W. P. Gibson and in the early eighties it passed to S. P. Ayers. Mr. Ayers sold to J. W. Johnson in January, 1895. In August, 1901, Johnson sold to the Iowa Publishing Company, Maurice L. Curtis, editor and manager. In February, 1903, Curtis & (T. G.) Gilson became the publishers, with the former as editor. In about 1920 Curtis became sole owner.
- Democratic Standard, Knoxville, 1856-1861. Democratic. Established in June, 1856, by Claiborne Hall. He soon sold the paper to a company and in 1858 S. M. Hammond and Remington became owners, but in about a year they were succeeded by M. V. B. Bennett and C. A. Barr. In 1860 Barr sold to T. J. Anderson. When the war began Anderson enlisted and the paper suspended.
- Marshall County -
- Central Journal, LaFayette, 1855-1927+. Established in November, 1855, by a company headed by J. W. Tripp, with Thomas J. Wilson as editor. E. N. Chapin and R. H. Barnhart bought it in December, 1856, and changed its name to:
Iowa Central Journal. In February, 1858, Barnhart obtained sole control and in October of that year removed the paper to Marshall and changed the name to the:
Marshall County Times and announced it as Republican. H. C. Henderson and R. Howe Taylor were its editors. In 1861 W. H. Gallup succeeded Barnhart in the ownership of the paper, but soon sold it to E. N. Chapin, but he sold back to Gallup. I.T. Britton bought it, merged it with the Marshall Expositor, which had been started a short time before, and called the combination the:
Union. Chapin and Barnhart purchased this plant and restored the old name, the:
Marshall County Times. In 1864 they sold to H. C. Henderson, and in 1866 he sold to Charles Aldrich. In 1869 Chapin & Sower became the owners and in April, 1875, began the publication of the daily edition. In 1880 A. S. Burnell, having succeeded to the ownership of the paper, disposed of it to H. L. Merriam, the owner of the Weekly Republican, which had been established in 1871, and he combined the two papers into the:
Times-Republican. In 1882 S. C. McFarland purchased an interest as also did S. W. Merriam in 1883. In 1891 H. L. Merriam, the editor, retired, and in 1893 McFarland sold to Welker Given. In 1896 McFarland repurchased, and in 1899 he and A. N. Parrett, who had become associated with him, sold their holdings to a corporation, headed by D. W. Norris, Jr., and Norris became editor and F. A. Moscrip assistant.
- Marietta Express, 1857-1860. Established December 17, 1857, by A. L. High and A. J. Kinney. It was discontinued in 1860.
- Mitchell County -
- Osage Democrat, 1856-1857. Democratic. Established spring of 1856 by Datus E. Coon. He continued the paper a little over a year and then removed the plant to Mason City.
- North Iowan, Osage, 1857-1868. Established in 1857 by Stillson Hutchins and H. K. Snow. In 1859 they sold it to J. H. Brush and in 1860 he sold to A. G. Owen. Owen at once removed it to St. Ansgar and changed the name to the:
St. Ansgar Journal. However, he discontinued it eight months later and sold the material back to Brush, who removed it back to Osage and re-established the:
North Iowan. In November, 1861, he sold it to A. K. Crum, who changed the name to:
North Iowa Standard. In March, 1865, he sold to William Toman, who changed the name back to:
North Iowan. In 1868 he sold to Crum & Rood, who changed the name to:
Osage Tribune. Six months later the paper was sold to and merged into the Mitchell County Press which had been established in 1865.
- Mills County -
- Glenwood Times, 1856-1857. Democratic. Established May 1, 1856, by J. M. Dews. It was suspended in a little over one year.
- Glenwood Union, 1856. Established in 1856 by J. R. Tyson. It was short lived.
- Glenwood Thought, 1856. Democratic. Established June 24, 1856, by L. Shields, J. L. Sharp as editor. It lived but briefly.
- Monona County -
- Western Nucleus and Democratic Echo, Preparation, 1854. Established March 24, 1854, by Charles B. Thompson and D. W. Butts. This paper and the News and Ephraim Messenger, a Mormon church paper that had been established there the previous year, were combined April 15, 1854, and they announced it would be partly theological and partly political. In 1856 this was succeeded by the:
Weekly News and Messenger. In 1858 Thompson & Butts removed the paper from Preparation to Onawa.
- Onawa Adventure, 1858. Established in 1858 by Charles B. Thompson. It lived but about six weeks.
- Monona Cordon, Onawa, 1860-1861. Established December 19, 1860, by Addison Dimmick and D. W. Butts. In November, 1861, Butts became sole owner, but soon suspended publication.
- Monroe County -
- Albia Independent Press, 1854-1867. Established October 10, 1854, by A. C. Barnes. It was announced to be non-partisan, but was against slavery, and in 1856 supported the Republican nominees, Fremont and Dayton. For a time in 1855 P. T. Green acted as associate editor. It was suspended in June, 1857.
- Albia Weekly Republican, 1857-1861. Republican. Established November 5, 1857, by W. W. Barnes. In February, 1858, C. E. Topping and A. R. Barnes succeeded to the ownership. In June Topping retired and Stephen R. Barnes became owner and in 1859 sold it to Josiah T. Young and T. B. Gray and they changed the name to:
Monroe County Sentinel, and changed the polities to Democratic. J. H. Denslow was connected with it for a time. It suspended in November, 1861.
- Jeffersonian Blade, Albia, 1860-1861. Republican. Established January 26, 1860, by James Noffeinger. In May, 1861, he sold to George Hickenlooper and Aaron Melick. It suspended October 15, 1861.
- Muscatine County -
- Iowa Standard, Bloomington, 1840-1841. Whig. Established October 23, 1840, by William Crum and W. D. Bailey. By April, 1841, Crum had become sole proprietor and he then discontinued publishing it at Bloomington and removed the plant to Iowa City.
- Herald, Bloomington, 1840-1927+. Democratic. Established October 27, 1840, by Thomas Hughes and John Russell, the latter being editor. In 1845 Russell sold to Dr. Charles O. Watters who became editor. He was succeeded by M. T. Emerson in 1846 who changed the politics of the paper to Whig. Later in the same year N. L Stout and William P. Israel purchased it, the former becoming editor. In the winter of 1848-49 F.A.C. Foreman purchased the paper, but in a few months had to suspend issuing it for lack of funds, and in about six months Noah H. McCormick revived publication and changed the name to the:
Muscatine Journal. In July, 1852, McCormick sold to Jacob and John Mahin, the latter becoming editor. In 1853 they took as another partner Orion Clemens. In January, 1855, the Mahins sold their interests to Charles H. Wilson and Orion Clemens, who instituted the daily edition in June of that year. Later in that year Clemens sold his interest to James W. Logan, and in January, 1856, Wilson sold to D. S. Early. The same year Early sold to John Mahin and F. B. McGill, the firm becoming Logan, Mahin & McGill. In August, 1857, John Mahin became sole owner. In 1866 he sold a half interest to L. D. Ingersoll who assumed the editorship. In 1868 Ingersoll sold to James Mahin. Soon after the latter's death, or January 1, 1879, the Journal Printing Company was organized, John B. and A. W. Lee being thus associated with John Mahin. In 1889 John Mahin and John Lee Mahin became sole owners. In January, 1903, the paper was sold to the Lee Syndicate and H. M. Sheppard became editor, followed by F. D. Throop in 1905, and he by Lee P. Loomis in 1908. When the Journal took over the News-Tribune in 1918 the combined paper became independent. Ralph J. Leysen was editor for a time, followed by George M. Hinshaw.
- Democratic Enquirer, Bloomington, 1848-1918. Democratic. Established July 7, 1848, by H. D. La Cossitt. In 1853 W. B. Langridge conducted it for six months, but it was sold to Jerome Carskadden and T. Meason Williams in 1854. In 1855 it was sold to Williams, Gibson & Co. with Robert Williams as editor. In January, 1856, the paper passed to Daniel S. Biles and E. W. Clarke, but in a few months Clarke was succeeded by Samuel McNutt. In 1859 J. Trainor King purchased it and changed the name to the:
Review, adding a daily issue. In 1860 Edward H. Thayer became owner and in 1861 changed the name to the:
Courier. In 1864 Barnhart Brothers bought it, and in 1872 George W. Van Horne became owner. The name was then changed to the:
Tribune, and the daily discontinued, but in 1874 E. H. and W. C. Betts obtained an interest and the daily was resumed. Van Horne retired in 1877 and W. C. Betts died in 1879, E. H. Betts remaining sole owner. May 1, 1889, the Tribune was sold to the Muscatine News Co., the News having been established in 1887, and the name then became the:
News-Tribune with Van Horne as editor. On his death in 1895 he was succeeded by Joseph Gerard Van Lent. The paper was taken over by the Muscatine Journal in 1918.
- Muscatine Zeitung, 1857-1858. Established in 1857 by Charles Rotteck, but was discontinued in 1858 and the material removed to Keokuk.
- Muscatine Messenger, 1860. Democratic. Established in 1860 by Samuel C. Dunn, its chief purpose being to support the presidential ticket of Bell and Everett. It lasted but briefly.
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