Iowa News from across the
- 1900 -
San Francisco Call
San Francisco, California
March 6, 1900
Chicago, March 5 - Twenty stockmen and railroad employes were injured in a freight collision to-day between two Illinois Central freight trains near Broadview, a few miles out of West Chicago. The following persons were hurt:
Joseph Hobbs, Marcus, Iowa, may die
Frank I. McCall, brakeman, Freeport, Ill., may die
E.E. Farwell, Manchester, Iowa
J.B. Counsell, Dyersville, Iowa, left thigh fractured
Edward Yaeger, Pringhara, Iowa, scalp wounds and left arm fractured
Charles Peters, Mattock, Iowa, head cut, arms and legs bruised
H.B. Emerson, Manchester, Iowa scalp wounds and right hand broken
J.J. Collins, conductor, face and head cut
J.A. Clark, Elmhurst, Ill., nose broken, head severely cut
J.H. Dunne, Marcus, Iowa, left shoulder and knee dislocated
W.R. Spear, brakeman, Dubuque, ankle broken, head cut
Joseph Bernard, Anton, Iowa, right wrist broken, scalp wounds
S.M. Wixwell, scalp wounds and both legs bruised
H.O. Booth, Sioux Falls, S.D., left foot fractured and head cut
Peter J. Bagte, Mattock, Iowa, feet broken and head and back bruised
G.P. Slatter, Sioux Falls, S.D., hands and feet cut
J.W. Bryant, Cleghorn, Iowa, left leg cut and right arm broken
W.E. Brazell, Otto, Iowa, bruised about head and body
Thomas McMahon, Quinby, Iowa, three ribs broken
E.A. Wilkinson, Quinby, Iowa, right hip dislocated and chest and back bruised
[transcribed by S.F., April 2015]
Wednesday, May 30, 1900
[Note: The following names were extracted from a much longer list of Civil War vets whose graves were to be decorated in Virginia, Nevada vicinity cemeteries on Memorial Day - s.f.]
Our Honored Dead
W.C. Jones, Corporal; 14th Iowa Infantry
C. Wilbur, Iowa (no other info. given)
Cemetery not named - referred to as outside - south of cemeteries
J.H. Brenhoits, Co. A, 3d Iowa Infantry
[extracted by S.F., May 2014]
Albuquerque, Bernalillo co., New Mexico
September 8, 1900
LOCAL NEW AND PERSONAL
L.L. De Lano, a prominent member of the Iowa bar at Atlantic, Iowa, and daughter are sight-seers in the city who are stopping at the Highland Hotel. They will spend two weeks visiting the various points of interest in Albuquerque and vicinity.
[transcribed by A.P., August 2003]
Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles, California
September 26, 1900
Licensed to Wed. Marriage licenses were issued at the County Clerk's office yesterday to the following persons:
-August C. May, aged 30, a native of Germany, and Anna Niemeyer, aged 27, a native of Iowa; both residents of Los Angeles.
-Hamilton M. Wright, aged 25, a native of Connecticut and a resident of Los Angeles, and Cora E. Pease, aged 23, a native of Kentucky and a resident of Des Moines, Iowa
[transcribed by S.F., November 2011]
Colorado Springs, Colorado
December 9, 1900
Away from Iowa
The University of Iowa is claiming the football championship of the west for the season of 1900. Whether or not the claim can be regarded by all us a just one, the fact remains that the state had a magnificent eleven, and there are a good many people who are residents or former residents neither of Iowa City nor of the Hawkeye state, who are ready to grant the claim. That Iowa should have a good football team is no matter of surprise to Colorado Springs people who are acquainted with their friends who were formerly Iowans. The Iowa men who came to Colorado Springs to make his home is by nature an aggressive individual. He is not a difficult man to get along with; on the contrary, he is as pleasant an neighbor as any one of us has or could desire to have. However to a very remarkable degree -- the Iowa man is a "scrappy" man. He was a valiant fighter in the '60's and in the war of 1898. He is extremely numerous in the legal profession, and he sooner or later manages to get a place near the top. In the general business and commercial world he is always a strong competitor. In the march of progress toward whatever end it be directed, he is found at the head of the [illegible].
As typified by Colonel Ensign, with his magnificent war record; Chief Justice John C. Campbell, the jurist; by Verner Z. Reed or Wm. Lennox, the business man, or by Wheeler, the Colorado college center, who is still playing football, the Iowa man in Colorado Springs is a very important factor.
Messrs. E.D. and Frank Heron, two of the best known young business men of Colorado Springs, are natives of Iowa, having been born at Fairfield. Their father, the late D. Heron, was himself a native of Scotland, but came to America when a young man and settled at Fairfield, Iowa, before the war. When the war broke out he became intereste in the cause of the unionists and enrolled in the Fifth Iowa volunteer infantry, with which organizaton he remained throughout the service. He was not a college bred man but had a law education which he acquired in an office, and he practiced law in Fairfield during the early part of his business career. Later he established a bank there and remained in the banking business until about 1850, when he went to Kansas. In 1888 he came to Colorado Springs where he became interested in the Exchange bank. Later he engaged in business as a mining broker together with his sons E.D. and Frank. They have, since his death, sold their [illegible] on the Mining [illegible] exchange and are now devoting themselves entirely to the management of their own private interests. D. Heron was one of the most respected members of the local Post 23, G.A.R., and has served his comrades as commander of the Post.
Another family that came to Colorado Springs from Iowa and has taken an active part in the affairs of public interest in the city for a great many years, is that of F.L. Rouse. Mr. Rouse bases his connection with Iowa upon the very substantial fact that he served through the civil war in an Iowa regiment, having fought under Colonel D.B. Henderson, now speaker of the house of representatives. As a resident of Grinnell, Iowa, before the outbreak of the war and after the return of peace. Mr. Rouse was a hardware merchant, being the proprietor of the leading establishment of its kind in the city. In 1873 declining health enduced him to seek a change of climate, and he removed to Colorado Springs. Here he reengaged in the hardware business, and later on became one of the members of the firm of Stevens and Rouse, livery stable proprietors, his partner being H. Hoyt Stevens, now the owner and proprietor of the Alta Vista Hotel. During his active business career in Colorado Springs Mr. Rouse acquired real estate interests that occupy his attention at the present time, he having retired from active business of any kind. Mr. Rouse and the members of his family are members of the First Congregational church and have always been active workers in the affairs of this institution.
John W. Garrett, the well known Huerfano street confectionery merchant and crack shot of Colorado, came to Colorado Springs five years ago after a residence of fifteen years in Des Moines and Cedar Rapids, Iowa. In Cedar Rapids he was in the insurance business and was a traveling salesman. Since coming to Colorado Springs he has been engaged continuously in the business in which he is at present.
Late in the fifties Henry F. Hamlin of Pennsylvania decided to seek his fortune in the west and he started. He reached Delaware county, Iowa and the town of Manchester. There he stopped, began business as a merchant and attained prominence. In Manchester, Iowa, Clarence C. Hamlin, now of Colorado Springs was born. Mr. Hamlin received his early education in the schools of his native town going far enough to complete a high school course. He was a nephew of Senator C.D. Clark of Wyoming and, deciding to study law, went to his uncle's office and put in some time reading. Later he returned to Iowa and completed his law course at the University of Iowa law school at Iowa City. He then returned to Wyoming where he practiced law with remarkable success from 1890 to 1895. Four years of these six he was a member of the state senate of Wyoming, and during this time was a member of a commission to make a complete revision of all the laws of the state. The commission completed this work while Mr. Hamlin was in office. In 1896, when he came to Colorado Springs to become a partner of Judge A.T. Gunnell, he resigned his seat in the Wyoming senate. for three years he was a member of the law firm of Gunnell and Hamlin, until 1899, when he resigned to become the partner of Mr. V.Z. Reed in his general mining and investment business. In his present connection he is a leader in the Colorado Springs business community. If Iowa has more men like him, Colorado Springs is ready to adopt them.
G.M. Edmondson, the assistant postmaster of Colorado Springs, is a native of Iowa and he doesn't care who knows it. He says he is pleased with Colorado Springs and expects to remain here, but that he has no apologies to make for Iowa and cites some of the men whom his country has produced, as an indication that Iowa is all right. Mr. Edmondson is regarded by postoffice people as one of the ablest postoffice men in this part of the country. He was brought up on the work, his father being postmaster in Milton, Iowa, for four years and his mother being in charge of the office for four years more. G.M. Edmondson being an assistant postmaster during all of this time and being only 11 years of age when he began it. His father's mane is W.F. Edmondson and he is a banker, still residing at Milton, Ia. He moved to Iowa from Virginia in 1845, being one of the first settlers in Van Buren county. He has a distince recollection of seeing Brigham Young and his little band of Mormons pass his door on their pilgrimage to Utah to establish the Mormon colony, which is now receiving the attention of the christian world to a greater extent every year. Twelve years ago G.M. Edmondson came to Manitou and was assistant postmaster for a year. Since then he has put in another year at the same work in Manitou. About four years ago he returned to Colorado Springs, having completed a law education at Ann Arbor, Mich. He practiced law here for a year and then became assisant postmaster, which position he still holds. When Mr. Edmondson said that it was a great county that he came from he went farther than most people do when making such assertions. He talked of a string of people whom he said came from his home county, and declared that if anyone else had a better county to suggest he (Edmondson) might think of a few more. these he named, as former residents of Van Buren county, Iowa are: Edward Manning, now 90 years of age and the richest man in Iowa, S.H. Elbert, formerly governor of Colorado; H.C. Caldwell, judge United States circuit court; W.A. Clark, United States senator from Montana; Delazon Smith, United States senator from Oregon; W.E. Mason, United States senator from Illinois; John A.T. Hull, congressman, Des Moines district; George G. Wright, chief justice Iowa supreme court; George W. McCrary, secretary of war in Hayes' cabinet; W.W. Belkamp, secretary of war ni Grant's cabinet. Keosauqua is the county seat of this remarkable county. The word is an Indian name and means "Great Bend". It is the third oldest town in the state, being ante-dated only by Dubuque and Keokuk.
N.S. Gandy, who is the law partner of H. McAllister, Jr., was born at Prescott, Iowa. His father, W.H. Gandy, who has for several years been one of the prominent citizens of Colorado Springs, was a native of West Virginia, but went to Iowa late in the fifties, locating on a farm near Prescott, and there all the members of his family were born. The business of Mr. Gandy in that locality consisted largely of cattle raising and shipping. He removed to Colorado Springs in 1890. Upon locating here he engaged in the shoe business, being the proprietor of the store now owned by J.A. Vorhes. He also conducted a wholesale commission business on Huerfano street, which he continued up to about a year ago. Mr. Gandy served in the war with the 20th Iowa volunteers. N.S. Gandy received most of his schooling at Baker University, at Baldwin, Kansas, near Kansas City. Upon coming to Colorado Springs, however, he secured a position as court stenographer under John C. Campbell, then district judge in El Paso county, now chief justice of the Colorado supreme court. After two years with Judge Campbell and the election of that jurist to the supreme bench, Mr. Gandy continued for two years as court stenographer for Judge Ira Harris. Leaving his position he entered the law department of the University of Denver, and completed his course there, graduating with highest class honors to his credit. Four more Colorado Springs young men were among his 30 classmates and the five young men from Colorado Springs made the remarkably good showing indicated by taking first, second, third, fourth and fifth places in the honors of the class. Mr. Gandy then went to Columbia college where he took another year of law work in brances that he had not covered in Denver. Returning to Colorado Springs two years ago he secured a position in the offices of Blackmer and McAllister where he remained until he became a partner of Mr. McAllister, upon the recent dissolution of the firm of which the latter had been a member.
J.E. McIntyre, who has been for 20 years a leading attorney of Colorado Springs, and is one of the owners of the McIntyre-Barnett building, was born at Wilton, in Muscatine county, Iowa. His boyhood days were spent there and in that locality he received his early education. He entered the state university at Iowa City, however, when ready to begin his academic course and remained a student there until he had completed the academic course and also the work in the department of law. In 1880 Mr. McIntyre was ready to begin the practice of his profession and he came to Colorado Springs. He immediately took a prominent place among the attorneys of the city, and is regarded today as one of the leading counselors of Colorado Springs and of this part of the state. His real estate interests are quite extensive and he has always been an advocate of any movement looking toward the improvement of the city in any of its interests. Mr. McIntyre was married in Iowa; his wife being the daughter of A.W. Otis, a prominent banker of Des Moines. Mrs. McIntyre died a number of years ago, however, leaving one son.
Another prominent G.A.R. man, who brought his Iowa army record and his Iowa business career to Colorado Springs, to help build up another state is Major H.C. McArthur. His Iowa home was at Keosauqua, where his parents located when he was but a small boy. There he lived until the opening of the war, having at that time established a good business in the furniture line. He enlisted with teh 15th Iowa regiment and served throughout the four years of the war, most of the time under General Sherman. He was in the Battle of Shiloh, through the Vicksburg campaign, through the Altanta campaign, on the famous march to the sea, on the march up through the Carolinas to Washington and was in the grand review at the capital in 1863. At his discharge he held the rank of major, conferred for gallant and meritorious conduct. He was then on General Delknap's staff. Returning to Iowa at the close of the war he engaged in the drug business, which he continued until about '87, when he moved his business to Lincoln, Neb. He continued it there until 1894, when he became the military instructor at the Nebraska State industrial school at Kearney, remaining there until he came to Colorado Springs in 1897. Here he has been identified with mining interests and is an active participant in the affairs of the Grand Army. Major McArthur was married in Iowa, his wife being a daughter of Samuel E. Jullen, a merchant of Keosauqua.
When Verner Z. Reed still needed a month or two to complete the first year of his career his parents moved from Ohio to the county of Washington in the state of Iowa. While there is no available record of what Mr. Reed did during his life in Ohio it is perhaps not an unwarranted presumption to state that the removal to Iowa was the chief event in which he figured during that first year. His boyhood days were spent in Washington county. He never went to college and the major part of the schooling that he received was at an institution of learning located at Columbus Junction, Iowa, where he went to school in the winter, working in the summer to get the necessary money. He had the reputation among his fellows of being a "hustler." Mr. Reed came to Colorado Springs in 1887 or 1888, having first spent a short time in Denver. There was at that time quite a real estate boom here and in this vicinity and Mr. Reed thought it was an opportunity for him to make a little stake. He got hold of a little block of land down at Fountain -- where the effect of the boom was as great as it was in Colorado Springs, and by platting the land and disposing of the lots he succeeded in making quite a little money. He came to Colorado Springs with it and invested it in lands, establishing himself here as a real estate man. Reed's addition was placed upon the market by him. R.P. Davie became associated with him to some extent, and finally succeeded in the real estate business. Mr. Reed found a field of operations, when Cripple Creek began to amount to something in effecting settlements and consolidations of mining companies which were involved in litigation or threatened litigation, and in this manner became the owner of more or less extensive blocks of Cripple Creek stocks. As a promoter Mr. Reed stands first among those who have operated in the Cripple Creek district. He is a man of innumerable strong friendships and of deep interest in everything that is for the welfare of Colorado Springs or of Colorado or of his fellow men. He is extremely fond of art in its best forms, and of the best literature, being himself the author of several works of more than ordinary merit.
Eleven years of residence in Oskaloosa, and eight years in Des Moines, is the ground upon which Paul Hutchinson bases his claim to Iowa citizenship. Since he never resided anywhere in the United States before coming to Colorado Springs, except in Iowa, no one will dispute his claim. He is, however, a native of England. Mr. Hutchinson attended college at Oskaloosa and followed his course there with a law course at the University of Michigan. He came to Colorado Springs in 1893 and soon thereafter organized the Assurance Savings and Loan association, with which he is still identified as a director. He has been instrumental in the development of the city in many ways since coming here, largely in the opening up of new tracts of real estate and [illegible words] district.
Colonel E.T. Ensign, treasurer of the Assurance Savings and Loan association came to Colorado Springs in 1874, after a long residence in Des Moines, Iowa, from which city he went to the war and served with great gallentry as a major in the 9th Iowa cavalry. It has been said of him by persons who were comrades with hiim in action that he was as absolutely fearless as it is possible for any man to be. At the close of the war he was a brevot-colonel. He attended the Iowa State university and graduated with [illegible - possibly 'one'] other law graduate, the two constituting the first law class ever graduated from the institution. He practiced law here in Colorado Springs during the early part of his residence here and was for a number of years the state forrestry commissioner. During the last several years he has been devoting himself to attention to his own interests and to his duties in connection with the Assurance Savings and Loan association.
A man who claims to be a friend of I.T. Jones spoke the other day as follows: "In the year of Our Lord 1871 two dire disasters occurred in the land. One was the burning of the city of Chicago and the other was the birth of I.T. Jones". Whether or not both were disasters is a question upon which most of the friends of Mr. Jones would disagree with the one who has been quoted. However, both events occurred. Most of the people have heard of the one, and some of the people have heard of the other. Everyone who has heard of the Chicago fire knows that it took place at the then comparatively small town of Chicago. Lots of the people who have heard of the other, or at least knew that the event took place, have [illegible] in ignorance, up to the present time, of the fact that it took place in the thriving city of Winchester, county of Van Buren, and state of Iowa. Certain Iowans in town say that the city of Winchester, then with 100 [illegible] .... then declined until at present it numbers only 26. Others say that that is [illegible] right, that the mission of the city was fulfilled in 1871. Mr. Jones was schooled at Cantril, near Keokuk. He attended high school and college at Fairfield, and then studied law at the University of [illegible], where his father had studied medicine before him. In 1894 he came to Colorado Springs to practice law. After a couple of years he secured the position of assistant postmaster at Manitou, resigning that to become [illegible] post master at Colorado Springs, which position he resigned in 1897 to resume the practice of his profession. He is now the junior member of the firm of [illegible] & Jones. Mr. Jones is a member of Sigma Chi fraternity and of the E.P.O.E. His membership in the latter is with Lodge 309 of this city, of which he is now leading knight.
Last week we told about a man who started from Pennsylvania to come to Colorado and when he reached the state he got clear to Aspen before he could stop. He realized that Colorado Springs was the place he started for, so he came back here a good many years ago, and he is still here. Attorney J.K. Vannita is in just about the same fix as the Pennsylvania man, only he stopped sooner. This was not difficult, however, as he did not have such a long start. He started at Iowa and got to Leadville. If he had started over the other side he might never have stopped, but he stopped at Leadville ..... he mined there for a while and then started back, stopping at Buena Vista for four or five years en route, to practice law. Continuing his journey back to Colorado Springs he stopped at Colorado City where he [illegible] four years, part of the time as city attorney. Twelve years ago he reached Colorado Springs and here he has stayed, and Colorado Springs don't want him to go back any farther. He is [illegible] law office off Nevada avenue, near the court house, and he has never [illegible] it. He is one of the solid, substantial members of the El Paso [illegible] and has impressed the people here as one worthy of their respect and friendship and their support, and they have accorded him all three. He is quite extensively interested in mines, as well as in the practice of his profession. His native state, as has been said, was Iowa, and his native town was Vinton, a place distinguished -- chiefly by its being the location of the state school for the blind. Mr. Vanatta is a son of S.P. Vanatta, also an attorney, who is new practicing in Cripple Creek. J.K. Vanatta studied law in his father's office. It was in 1879 that he left his native state for Colorado and his subsequent career was as has been outlined.
Perhaps the most distinguished ex-Iowan who is now a citizen of Colorado Springs is Judge John C. Campbell, chief justice of the supreme court of Colorado. He came to Colorado Springs in 1879, after spending practically his whole life up to that time in the Hawkeye state, his father having located at Oceola away back in 1836, among the earliest of Iowa's pioneers. In this little town of Oceola, in the southeastern part of the state, John C. Campbell and his brother, Norman M. Campbell, also a Colorado Springs attorney at the present time, spent their boyhood and their early school days and grew to manhood. Chief Justice Campbell was not born in Iowa, his parents being in Indiana at the time of his birth, but he regards Iowa his state and he is known everywhere as an Iowa man. When he was ready to enter upon a university course, John C. Campbell went to Iowa City to attend the state university and there he completed his studies and took his course in law. In 1879 he entered upon the practice of the law in Colorado Springs and he rose rapidly from the very start. He early formed a partnership with Attorney J.E. McIntyre, whom he had known in college, and the firm was a leading one in the city as long as it continued. Mr. Campbell was elected to the bench in the district court in the Fourth Judicial district and went from that bency to that of the supreme court six years ago. Norman M. Campbell also is a graduate of the University of Iowa and did considerable post-graduate work at the University of Wisconsin, University of [remainder of sentence illegible]
About 37 years ago a canvas-covered prairie schooner set sail from the little town of Independence, Iowa, for a voyage of many weeks, with Colorado Springs as its destination. When it tied up at this post one of the passengers who jumped ashore and began to look around for a place to start in conquering the new world was a boy named "Del" Whaite. He had been born in Independence and had known no other home. His father established a shoe business here and it continued for many years. "Del" started in at his work of conquest with a job hearding cattle in this more or less congenial association he spent several years. As he became a man, however, he gradually worked into various positions in which he acquitted himself well and finally he became a full-fledged business man, a member of the clothing firm of Daniels and Whaite. The firm was dissolved and Mr. Whaite became manager for Holbrook and Perkins with whom he remained for 11 years until he established his own busniess on South Tejon street, the capacity of which he has recently doubled, making it the largest business of its kind in the city. He has been more or less interested in mines from time to time, but has not let his attention in his established business be drawn away by the desire for easy and sudden wealth. Perhaps this is indicated sufficiently by the fact that Mr. Whaite was at one time the owner of the famous Little Jonny mine at Leadville, but that was before the days that Little Jonny attained fame.
As has been the case in each of the state articles which has been published in the Gazette up to the present time it is impossible to mention at length all of the people who have come from Iowa to help build up the finest city in the west at Colorado Springs. It is impossible to make an extended mention of all of them and such is not the purport of this series of articles. Neither is it the intention to make extended mention of [illegible section]
It has been impossible to secure a complete roll of Iowa's [illegible] colony in Colorado Springs and doubtless many Colorado Springs people of prominence who came here from Iowa are not mentioned, but [illegible] besides those already mentioned, are the following:
O.B. Bennett, Birmingham
Charles H. Dudley
W.R. Armstrong, Orient
W.G. Luce, Keokuk
J.C. Plumb, Fort Madison
J.J. Gilleside, Clarinda
J.E. Read, Des Moines
J.W. Sheafor, Fairfield
E.L. Mason, Cedar Rapids
J.B. Stid ---
[several illegible names]
O.M. McBride, Oskaloosa
Harly B. Fark, Keokuk
Fred P. Duphly, [illegible]
Alfred Wyatt, Mt. Pleasant
D.W. Robbins, Des Moines
B.G. Robbins, Des Moines
John Tannington, Milton
W.K. Brown, Leon
Mrs. A.M. Moore, Fairfield
---- Collins, Fairfield
Mr. and Mrs. E.W. Shove
C.C. Carter, Burlington
John I. Franklin, Custer
J.M. Jackson, Oskaloosa
R.A. Christy, Des Moines
C.W. Mills, Des Moines
F.B. Abernathy, ???
Mr. and Mrs. W.H. Spa ----, Mt. Pleasant
Wm. Lennox and ---- Lennox
R.B. Ross, ???
Robert Waugh, Mt. Pleasant
J.P. Glass, Iowa City
R.L. Wilson, Iowa City
Dr. D.H. Rice, Keokuk
Dr. B.B. Grover, Des Moines
L.M. Field, Maquoketa
C.H. Morse & family, Rockwell City
A. Jae Ward and wife
Henry Ambler, Mt. Pleasant
J.H. Bothwell, Ottumwa
[photos in this article:
John Campbell, V.Z. Reed, J.E. McIntyre, C.C. Hamlin, G.M.
Edmondson & N.S. Gandy]
[transcribed by S.F., March 2005]
Los Angeles Herald
Los Angeles, California
December 10, 1900
Death of Col. Banbury
Colonel Jabez Banbury, one of the early settlers of Pasadena, died this evening at his residence, No. 159 South Marengo avenue. Colonel Banbury was 70 years of age, and had been in poor health for several years. He leaves, among other relatives, a widow and two daughters, Mrs. Dr. Crank of Pomona and Mrs. William E. Ford, of this city.
Born in England, Colonel Banbury came to this country in 1854, and for many years resided at Marshalltown, Ia. He entered the army at the outbreak of the civil war as first lieutenant in the Fifth Iowa infantry, and after four years of gallant service, was mustered out as colonel of the regiment.
He came to Pasadena in the early seventies, and until a few years ago has been closely identified with the city's affairs. For several years he was associated with M.E. Wood in the real estate business, under the firm name of Wood & Banbury. He was a treasurer of Los Angeles county for two terms, and was the first city treasurer of Pasadena. He also served a term as assemblyman from this district.
The funeral will be held at the family residence on Tuesday afternoon at 1:30 o'clock.
[transcribed by S.F., July 2016]
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